Thursday, August 22, 2019
Nuclear Weapon and Cold War - Essay Example The debate on nuclear policy has addressed the deterrence of aggressive nations and the proliferation goals of nuclear weaponry. The Cold War, which took place following World War II, was a power struggle between the world powers, more specifically the United States and the Soviet Union. During the Cold War, nuclear proliferation became inevitable as the world powers and their allies struggled to obtain the resources necessary to build their own nuclear weapon. As other nations developed the capability to produce nuclear weapons, limiting nuclear proliferation to the greatest degree possible became one of the primary goals of American foreign policy. The events following World War II, inadvertently changed the international politics of the United States by requiring the American government to take a more active role in the affairs of the nation. In the long run, the proliferation of nuclear weapons increased the Cold War but diminished the desire for a hot war. For centuries, the United States' foreign policy was isolationism, however, the Americans' international politics changed dramatically by the end of World War II.2 The United States rarely developed international policies, military advancements, or technological advancements before other nations. "The United States through most of its history had hardly led the world in developing new war-fighting technologies. Americans had tended to imitate rather than to originate weaponry"3 As the war came to a close, the United Stated tested the first nuclear weapon, an atomic bomb. The Americans' development of the first nuclear weapon was unprecedented, but the United States was trying to find a fast and cost effective solution to bring World War II to an end. "Having acquired this awesome weapon, the United States used it against Japan for a simple and straightforward reason: to achieve victory as quickly, as decisively, and as economically as possible Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed"4 This devastating demonstration of the atomic bomb ended World War II only weeks after the creation of the United Nations. The United States government started to take an active role in the world and the security of the nation instead of maintaining its isolationist views. The United States government enacted organizations, policies, plans, and treaties to insure the safety and security of themselves and their allies, therefore taking on a very untraditional role. At the end of the Second World War, the major concern was the containment of communism and the security of the United States and its allies. In 1946, Winston Churchill warned the United States about the Iron Curtain. The Iron Curtain was a "symbolic separation of Europe" between countries that were controlled by the Soviet Union and those that were not controlled by the Russians.5 The fear was that a "domino effect"6 (one country falls to communism then they all
Review of Financial Statements Essay Financial statements are essential accounting tools which include balance sheets, cash flow statements, and income statements that provide information on a companys past and present financial history. Information on financial statements can be used by any number of public and private entities to determine if an organizations financial status is healthy. Burger King and McDonalds are two organizations that use financial statements in conducting business. Further, this paper will discuss the financial statements of each company, the firms which audit each companies financial statements, and define accounting concepts, terminologies, and transactions used in the financial statements. Additional information will provided regarding when McDonalds and Burger King were established and what product and services they provide to the public. Overview of Organizations McDonalds first opened its doors in 1940 introducing the concept of the speedee service system offering french fries, hamburgers, and shakes to satisfy the hungry customer quickly at a low price. Over the next 65 plus years the McDonalds menu has changed from just french fries and hamburgers to salads, wraps, chicken nuggets and many more items which cater to the ever changing tastes of consumers. McDonalds has been criticized over the years as being a major contributor high obesity rates, in part due to the speedee service concept. These criticism have caused McDonalds to rethink menu items and helped the company to enact numerous changes to the menu which now offers nutritional guides for each menu item and healthier choices such as salads, fruit, and milk. McDonalds has changed the oil used to fry foods to make the fries healthier and includes a choice of meal sizes and most recently started a new line of coffee drinks, which offers the desired Starbucks taste for a fraction of the cost. The fast food chain currently has 31,000 restaurants worldwide and operates in 119 countries and serves approximately 47 million customers daily. McDonalds is also highly associated with the Ronald McDonald House Charities (RMHC) that has donated money and services to families and communities for over 35 years to approximately 37 million children and families. (McDonalds, 2009). The McDonald Corporation pays for most ofÃ RMHCs global administration cost so that all donations go directly to the community and families. The charity is in such high demand that RMHC plans to expand their programs by 37% by 2010 to better help those in need. Burger King started in 1953 first known as Insta Burger King offering hamburgers to consumers that was cooked on a small cooker called an Insta-Broiler oven; the concept proved to be successful. In 1954 the name changed to Burger King, the broiler oven first used was replaced with the flame broiler and soon became popular for offering their flame broiled hamburgers and what is now known as the Whopper burger. (Burger King, 2009). The next 60 plus years for Burger King began suffering the same criticisms as McDonalds. It seemed all fast food chains were being blamed for the increased obesity rate in the U.S. Burger King followed suit and began making changes to their menus adding chicken, salads, fruit, food nutritional guides, smaller sizes, choice of drinks such as tea, milk, and changing the oil used to fry French fries as well as additional changes. Burger King Corporation is associated with a few charity organizations such as Have It Your Way which works to alleviate hunger, disease, and promotes community education through scholarship programs; the McLamore Foundation provides scholarships and is associated with several charities for When Organizations Were Established Burger King was founded in 1954 in Miami, Florida by James McLamore and David Edgerton. McLamore and Edgerton, both of whom had extensive experience in the restaurant business before starting their joint venture, believed in the simple concept of providing the customer with reasonably priced quality food, served quickly in attractive, clean surroundings. (New York Job Source, 2009), thus, the invention of the Whopper which was an instant success. Today Burger is found in all 50 states and 74 countries and territories throughout the world with more than 11,700 restaurants. In 1967 the Pillsbury Company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota purchased the company and its employees and the company went public in May 2006 at $17 a share. Today the company remains majority-owned by an equity group comprised of Texas Pacific Group, Bain Capital Partners and the Goldman Sachs Funds. (New York Job Source, 2009). McDonalds was founded by two brothers, Dick and Mac McDonald of SanÃ Bernardino, California. Ray Kroc, a milkshake machine distributor happened on the brothers restaurant as he was curious to discover why such a small establishment would need 10 milkshake machines. Kroc was impressed by the speed with which these two brothers were able to provide service in their busy hamburger stand and he asked the brothers for a briefing on their McDonalds Speedee System and after the briefing he requested and secured the rights to duplicate the system throughout the United States. Ray Kroc opened his first outlet in Chicago in 1955, 50 years later the number of McDonalds locations had expanded to over 31,500. (Albrecht, Stice, Stice, Swain, 2008, pg. 76). Today McDonalds averages over 100 million dollars a day and is located in 121 countries around the world. Both companies had meager beginnings and have grown into fast food superstars. Accounting Organizations Providing Audits Both McDonalds and Burger King offer burgers, fries, and creamy shakes. However, the differences between McDonalds and Burger King are far more than golden arches and golden crowns. McDonalds has both and internal and external audit committees. The internal audit committee is composed of five Directors, each of whom meets the independence and other requirements of the New York Stock Exchange (Santona, 2009). The committee abides by a charter which states all its responsibilities and is reviewed annually. Ernst Young LLP (Ernst Young), the Companys independent auditors, is responsible for performing an audit of the Companys annual consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and for issuing a report on those statements (Santona, 2009). The Burger King Corporation also has both internal and external audit committees. The internal committees perform quarterly internal audits that are published for investors, but these audits are indicated as unaudited by an external entity. KPMG LLP is the external organization the Burger King Corporation uses for its external audits. Financial Statements Used and Terminology As a publicly traded company within the United States Burger King Corporation (BKC) has taken all the necessary steps required to abide by the regulations set forth the Sarbanes-Oxley ActÃ of 2002. The annual report for FY2008 includes information such as business information, risk factors, physical assets, legal proceedings, stockholder matters, and finally a comprehensive financial statement. (Burger King Corp, 2009). This section of the annual report begins with management reports on internal controls which are in place regarding financial reporting which explains in detail the understanding of both the CEO and CFO and their obligation to take full responsibility for the content of the annual report. The report of the independent registered public accounting firm (KPMG) is and additional statement of responsibility from the independent accounting firm which states the firm has reviewed the information. Paged within the reportcontain the balance sheet, statement of income, statem ent of stockholders equity, and statement of cash flows for FY2008 compared to 2007, 2006, and 2005. While BKCs annual report was presented in a standard no-frills format, McDonalds Corporations 2008 annual report included graphics and photos as the driver of the information. Along with the financial statements, McDonalds annual report focused on highlights from the menu to the money along with letters of welcome from the Chairman, Andy McKenna and CEO, Jim Skinner. (McDonalds Corporation, 2009). The financial reporting still included the managements report on internal controls, the report of independent registered public accounting firm (Ernst Young, LLP), the balance sheet, statement of income, statement of stockholders equity, and the statement of cash flows. In both instances a dedicated effort was made to satisfy the requirements regulated by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Basic Accounting ConceptsIn 2008, McDonalds financial report shows annual total revenue at 23,522.4 million dollars compared to Burger Kings 2,455.0 million dollars; a difference of 21,067.4 million dollars; McDonalds clearly having earned more revenue (MSN Money, 2009). However, prior to 2003, the difference between McDonalds profits and Burger Kings were even greater. From 2001 through 2003 Burger King was losing money, but has made a steady annual gross profit since. (CNN Money, 2006). Transactions In 2008, Burger Kings annual profit was 1,452.0 million dollars and in 2007 the profit was 1,317.0 million dollars, a growth of 135 million dollars. McDonalds has also encountered gross profit over the past two years, however, at a much greater scale. In 2008 the gross profit recorded was 8,639.2 million dollars and in 2007 a gross profit was recorded of 7,905.2, an increase in profit of 734 million dollars. Accounts Affected by Transactions While the two fast food restaurant chains are no where near comparable in revenue, both chains are increasing revenue year after year. Since 2006, when Burger King became a publicly traded company; like McDonalds, they both worked to maintain a profitable growth for share holders which has increased the amount of profit each year (MSN Money, 2009). Both companies have cash assets as well as land and property, rental fees, food, supplies, salary responsibilities, and advertising. Financial Statements Affected by TransactionsEach of the transactions listed for Burger King and McDonalds are provided in detail on a number of the financial statements. Specifically, the profit can be followed on the balance sheet, the statement of income, and the statement of cash flows located in each annual report. In addition these figures are compared to the previous years numbers on each of these statements. Conclusion McDonalds and Burger King have been in business for decades and each company has established its respective company in the hearts of the American people and consumers across the globe when they expanded into global market. Both companies use reputable accounting firms and the same types of financial statements in order to assess the health of their financial status. This paper has shown how important understanding the concepts, terms, and transactions listed on financial statements are in order to better gauge how a company is faring financially on a year to year basis. References Albrecht, W.S., Stice, E.K., Stice, J.D. Swain, M.R. (2008). Accounting: Concepts and applications, (10 ed). Cengage Learning Center, Mason, Ohio. Burger King Corp. (2009). Company Info. Retrieved June 20, 2009 http://www.bk.com/Companyinfo/corporation/fact.aspxCNN Money. (2006). The King Meets his Public. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2006/03/06/8370602/index.htmMcDonalds. (2009). Our company. Retrieved June 18, 2009 from http://www.aboutmcdonalds. Com/mcd/our_company.htmlMcDonalds Corporation (2009). 2008 annual report. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from http://www1.mcdonalds.com/annualreport/index.htmlMSN Money. (2009). McDonalds Corporation: Financial Statement. Retrieved June 18, 2009,from http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/statement.aspx?Symbol=MCD1stStatement=IncomestmntView=AnnMSN Money. (2009). Burger King Holdings Inc.: Financial Statement Retrieved June 18, 2009, from http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/statement.aspx?Symbol =BKC1stStatement=IncomestmntView=AnnNew York Job Source. (2009). Burger King: Worlds second largest food chain. Retrieved June 19, 2009 from http://www.nyjobsource.com/burgerking.htmlSantona, G. (2009). McDonalds: 2009 Annual Shareholders Meeting and Proxy Statement. Retrieved June 20, 2009, from http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/etc/medialib/aboutMcDonaldsinvestor_relations.Par.58.686.File.tmp/2009%20Annual%Shareholders%20Meeting%20Proxy%20Statement.pdf
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Dell Business Analysis: Organisation and Effectiveness Summary The research is about study of distribution channel management at Dell Computers, UK. My work is more practical in nature, studying the Distribution Channels of Dell, both at a strategic and an operational level. I would be analysing the business function on its efficiency and effectiveness, comparing with the other industry performers. I would mostly be comparing the function against Sony Electronics, the most respected name in multi-channel distribution network; Acer, pioneer of value computing products and proprietary brands like Advent. The research aims to analyse and study the distribution channel of Dell in UK, distribution channel of its competitors, efficiency and effectiveness of Dells Distribution channel as compared to its competitors. And based on the research and analysis propose recommendations to enhance its effectiveness. The literature review section of the dissertation explores the definition of distribution, channel, and distribution channel and distribution channel management. Apart from that the section also examines the activities and the levels of distribution channel. The latter half of the section focuses on the distribution strategy adopted by Dell, Sony and Acer. Research is conducted by means of case study as well as survey. Case study analysis incorporates the study and effectiveness of the distribution strategy of Acer, Sony and Dell. Two set of questionnaires are designed to collect data from the end customer and the channel partners. Apart from that secondary data is used from from books, journals, company reports and documents, government websites whereas primary data is collected by means of survey questionnaire distributed channel partners and the end customers. In all 50 questionnaires are collected duly filled out of 60 questionnaires being sent out to the end customer whereas the questionnaire for the channel partners was send to 50 channel partners out of which only 30 responses were received. Questionnaires were sent out using survey distribution services of a web site. Care was taken to ensure that diverse demographic is covered for the survey. The research has its own drawbacks such as the work limited to the English market. Financial and time constraints of my semester mean that Im not able to conduct a global research that would be more apt in this case. Another limitation is most of my work is conducted through a personal observation method; as such it is prone to my personal bias. Thirdly distribution channel model is a sensitive piece of company information. As far as information on the competitors distribution channel is concerned its bit difficult. CHAPTER 1: Introduction This chapter will introduce the topic, specify the key aim and objectives of the dissertation, discuss the research approach and state the dissertation outline. The key aim of this chapter is to establish the foundation for the research topic by giving out basic information. 1.1 Introduction The research is about study of distribution channel management at Dell Computers, UK. The dissertation is more practical in nature, studying the Distribution Channels of Dell, both at a strategic and an operational level. I would be analysing the business function on its efficiency and effectiveness, comparing with the other industry performers. I would mostly be comparing the function against Sony Electronics, the most respected name in multi-channel distribution network; Acer, pioneer of value computing products and proprietary brands like Advent. Dell Inc. is a multibillion dollar, multinational technology firm that manufactures, develops, sells and supports personal computing and computer related products. Dell has seen a rapid growth to become one of the top three vendors in the PC manufacturing industry, and has seen a substantial increase in share price and market value. While many other companies were unable to handle the demands of the competition, Dell has proved successful in such an environment. The main key to success to Dell has been its two innovative practices that is direct sales and build-to-order business model. This model is simple as a concept but highly complex to execute, especially in the present conditions of rapid growth and change. Dell has continually renewed and extended its business model while striking a balance between control and edibility. Dell made changes in its design, manufacturing, procurement, and logistics processes to reduce the costs, and to speed up the entire distribution system. It has expanded into International markets and it started making notebook and server product lines which has led to extraordinary profits for dell, and has given a great market value for the company. Dell has reached sales of $18.2 billion by the year 1998, with a profit of $1.46 billion, and Dells market share in the PC market grew from 3% in 1995 to 9.2% in the year 1999 with stock price increasing by 40 times. Dells market capitalization has reached $100 billion. 1.2 Research aim and Questions The primary purpose of my research work is to analyse the role distribution channels play in the functioning of a business, both in the long run and in the short run. My study is to present a detailed description of the unique distribution channel adopted by Dell Inc., analyse its efficiency and effectiveness, identify possible loopholes and put forth recommendations for development. My study is being undertaken with an aim to answer the following research questions: * How are the various distribution channels organised within Dell Inc.? * How does it compare with its competitors? * How effective and efficient is this channel management at Dell? * What can be done to make it better? The four research questions are the guiding blocks of my entire research and all of the work would be done, keeping them in view. Distribution Channels within Dell: I would be looking at Dells innovative distribution channel management which has literally revolutionised the importance of Direct Marketing in the consumer electronics space. Direct marketing is still the primary distribution mechanism within Dell. I would be documenting the evolution of this concept within Dell right from its customized sales regime during PCs Limited to the complex and sophisticated systems that it employs currently. I would be presenting a visual of the entire distribution network that it stands at today. Comparison with its competitors: I would be comparing the dynamic distribution systems of its arch rivals. Sony and Acer are the brands that I would be concentrating upon. I would be looking at the strategies adopted in different economies, though my primary concentration would be on the English markets. Efficiency and Effectiveness: I would be conducting an efficiency and effectiveness test of Dells powerful distribution network against its competitors. This would be an empirical study. I would be concentrating on the parameters of Customer Satisfaction and Vendor relationship management. Recommendations: Finally, I would be putting forth recommendations for future developments along with the cost benefit analysis of such implementations. 1.3 Research approach The study is conducted by collecting secondary data and primary data. Secondary data is collected from books, journals, government websites, company documents whereas primary data is collected by means of survey questionnaire distributed among channel partners and the end customers. Participants of research would be intermediaries in the distribution network and the end customer. In order to select the participants the study has made use of stratified random sampling method in order to make sure that major demographic segments are represented while selecting the samples (Rao Skinner, 1996). Questionnaire design consists of two parts. The first part contained the demographic information while the second part dwelled on each of the subjects perception on each variable using five point likert scales from 1 (Ã¢â¬Å"Strongly AgreeÃ¢â¬ ) to 5(Ã¢â¬Å"Strongly DisagreeÃ¢â¬ ). The study did not require any assistance from a third party or any other institution. In order to collect data the study made use of web portal survey to distribute survey and get responses. The system was designed in such a way that the respondent have to submit all the answers. Out of 60 questionnaires, responses for 50 surveys were obtained. The duration for the survey was kept as two weeks, a reminder mail was being sent to the respondents at the end of week one to remind them. 1.4 Importance of the study Organizations have been undergoing strategic changes over the past decade. More so in the past couple of years. The current recession has proved that risk management and strategic planning are most vital for an organizations long lasting and self-sustaining performance. My work will strive to highlight one such areas of strategic thinking and inform the senior management about the benefits involved. 1.5 Research Scope My work would primarily be concentrated on the UK market. Though Dell is a global corporation with intermediaries present across the globe, all working towards forming an effective value chain to maximize business potential and ensure efficiency in operations; UK being the second biggest market after the US will be a general approximation of the entire organizational behaviour. Furthermore, the cosmopolitan nature of London and demographic diversity ensures that it would be a close estimate of the general population. 1.5 Limitation of Research I intend to undertake my research as comprehensively as possible. As in any research work, inherent are some unavoidable drawbacks in my study. Few of them are: * Financial and Time Constraints: As outlined before, the scope of my work is limited to the English market. Financial and time constraints of my semester mean that Im not able to conduct a global research that would be more apt in this case. * Personal bias. Most of my work is conducted through a personal observation method; as such it is prone to my personal bias. However as the person who is to do the entire research right from formulation of research questions to recommending solutions, I would be most qualified to comment on the topic. * Information Constraints. Distribution channel model is a sensitive piece of company information. Though I have secured access to Dell, wherein I could do all the data mining myself, the extent of information that I would be able to muster about the rivals model is still to be seen. 1.5 Dissertation outline The structure of the dissertation is as follows Chapter 1: Chapter 1 encompass introduction to the topic, followed by brief background into the research topic. This beginning chapter also lays bare aims and objectives of the research followed by structure of the thesis. Apart from that this chapter also gives information on the research approach adopted and the limitations of the research. Chapter 2: The literature review section of the dissertation explores the definition of distribution, channel, and distribution channel and distribution channel management. Apart from that the section also examines the activities and the levels of distribution channel. The latter half of the section focuses on the distribution strategy adopted by Dell, Sony and Acer. The final section compares the distribution strategy by all the three players. Chapter 3: The thesis then moves on to methodology section wherein the research model, research framework and data collection methodology is discussed. Questionnaire method is used to collect the necessary data from the consumer. Chapter 4: This chapter explores data findings Chapter 5: This chapter presents the conclusion. Chapter 6: This includes references using Harvard referencing style Chapter 7: This includes the Appendix 1.6 Summary The chapter introduced the topic of the dissertation, specified the key aims and objectives of the research. Discussed the research approach in form of secondary and primary data collection through the means of questionnaire and clearly stated the limitations of the research in brief. The chapter also outlines the research structure specifying the contents of each chapter. Chapter 2: Literature Review During my research, I would primarily be looking towards the concepts of Distribution Channel and its management. I would be guided by the various contributions in the field, though my work would primarily be influenced by the theories and suggestions of Philip Kotler in the area. A Professor of Business Studies at the Kelloggs Business School, Kotler is often regarded as the Ã¢â¬ËFather of Modern Marketing. My work also coincides with various other management thinking like Consumer Behaviour, Relationship Management, Marketing Mix and Optimization, among others. 2.1 Definition 2.1.1 Distribution Kotler (1996) states that distribution is a key element in the marketing mix (place amongst the 4Ps). It is the systems and practices in use which make a product or service available to the consumer of such a product or service. 2.1.2 Channel Channel is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for consumption or useÃ¢â¬ (Gorchels, West, Marien, 2004). It can also encompass physical movement, warehousing, ownership of the product, presale transaction, post-sale activities; order processing, credit and collections; and other different types of support activities (Gorchels, West, Marien, 2004). 2.1.3 Distribution Channel The Distribution Channel is the chain of intermediaries, each of them passing on the product or service to another intermediary until it reaches the consumer. The business dictionary defines it as Ã¢â¬Å"The route by which a product or service is moved from a producer or supplier to customers. A distribution channel usually consists of a chain of intermediaries, including wholesalers, retailers, and distributors, that is designed to transport goods from the point of production to the point of consumption in the most efficient wayÃ¢â¬ (Dictionary, 2010) Another definition of Distribution channel states Ã¢â¬Å"A group of independent and interdependent organizations involved in the sale and movement of goods and services to the end users may be called a distribution channel or networkÃ¢â¬ (Gorchels, West, Marien, 2004). More specifically, a distribution channel is: * The transfer of goods from manufacturer to the end user. * Route of a company for distributing the goods. * The process of moving goods from the manufacturer to the consumer. * A supply chain consisting of all parties in between production to the end user. 2.2 Types of channel members The activities in the distribution channel can be carried out by the marketer himself or it can be carried out by specialist organizations. The specialist organizations and the channel members can be categorized into two types. * Resellers * Specialty Service Firms. Resellers are the companies which usually buy and take the ownership of the products from the manufacturer with the intention of selling to end consumers. An organization can have one or more than one reseller in the chain. The network or chain of resellers is known as reseller network. The resellers can be further classified into: Retailers: A retailer sells the product directly to the end customer. Wholesalers: Wholesalers buy the products from manufacturer or other wholesalers and then they sell the products to the retailers. Industrial Distributors: They are the ones who sell products from one business to other, they are suppliers who buy the goods and sell it to another firm. Specialty service firms are organizations that do not take the ownership of the products. They also provide additional services along with the products. Specialty firms can be: Agents and brokers: They are the firms which bring together the suppliers and buyers and mediate the sale and they charge a fee for this kind of service. Distribution service firms: They provide services which help with the movement of goods in the distribution channels like transportation, processing and storage of goods and products. Others: They are the firms which provide other services to the channels in distribution like insurance, routing assistance etc. The distribution channels consist of many parties among which each of them is trying to meet their objectives. Relationships between channel members should be strong with each others especially on which they are depending for the further distribution of product. 2.3 Levels The arrangement of the distribution channels can be classified into two types: * Independent channel arrangements. * Dependent channel arrangements. Independent channel arrangements: In this type of arrangement the channel members negotiate deals with others which do not result in the binding of the relationships. Channel members are free to make arrangements which they feel is in their own and best interest. An individual member decides what is best for them and not the entire channel. This is also called conventional distribution arrangement and often significant conflict as each member decides what is best for him and not in concern with the entire channel As shown in the figure 2 there are four levels of distribution channels. Channel 1 is called the direct marketing channel which is the distribution of products or services from the manufacturer to the customer. The best example for this channel is Dell which does not makes use of any intermediaries to distribute its products to end customers; there are no retailers, agents or wholesalers. The channel does not have any intermediaries. This type of channel helps to eradicate the excess cost and also helps to have good control over the quality and marketing. The other three channels fall in the category of Ã¢â¬Å"indirect marketing channelsÃ¢â¬ . As shown in the figure 1, the second channel has one intermediary, if the market is a consumer market the one intermediary is basically a retailer. Electronic consumer goods market of UK is an example of second type of channel arrangement. In this type of distribution arrangement the companies sell good to large retail chains, example would be Sony, Canon, and HP selling their electronic goods to large retail chains such as Dixons. These retailers in return sell the goods to the end customer. As shown in the figure Channel 3 consists of two levels which are the wholesaler and the retailer. The role of the wholesale in this channel is to buy the products at bulk from the manufacturer and then sell the same to retailer in smaller quantities. This model works best for retailers on small scale and not for big chains such as Dixons. This type of distribution channel is best when there are large number of small retailers and not big companies. Example in this case would be the medical drugs distribution market in the UK. The fourth channel has added level to it in the form of agents who work as intermediary between manufacturer and wholesaler. The agent acts as representative for both the sides. This works in textile market. Figure 2 gives information on the four types of distribution channel. Dell follows the manufacturer to direct customer channel thus discarding the intermediaries in between. Source: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/IIT-MADRAS/Management_Science_II/Pdf/1_4.pdf A direct distribution channel is where a company sells their products direct to consumers. While direct channels were not popular many years ago, the Internet has greatly increased the use of direct channels. Additionally, companies needing to cut costs may use direct channels to avoid middlemen mark-ups on their products. Distributors, wholesalers and retailers are the primary indirect channels a company may use when selling their products in the marketplace. Companies choose the indirect channel best suited for their product to obtain the best market share; it also allows them to focus on producing their goods. Though, in practicality, a number of other players exist, they can be generalised to the above. The specific channel of distribution adopted by a company depends, to a major extent, on its business model, the industry type and the scale of its operations. As an Instance, Sony has its own set of company operated exclusive showrooms. The strong brand equity of Sony, the scale of its business and clearly identifiable product differentiations that it enjoys with the consumers, allow it to leverage on its economies of scale and scope by operating its own outlets. Directly, this result in better margins for the company and indirectly it helps building on its already demanding brand leadership. Dell, on the other hand, relies more on online sales. This is because of the organization of its service delivery utility. Dells business model is based upon its centralised manufacturing facilities, rather than the nuclear organization at Sony. Online sales suits such a strategy by negating the high costs of transportation and inventory planning issues involved. A manufacturer selling a physical product might require three channels: Sales Channel, Delivery Channel, and Service Channel. In Our case, Dell uses telephone and internet as sales channels, express mail services as the delivery channel and local repair people as its service channel. 2.4 Distribution Channel Activities Distribution includes different range of activities (Richard Gay, 2007) * Linking many suppliers to provide wide range of consumer choice * Assist the exchange process identify the needs of the buyer in the context of product categories, quantities, range etc. and devise manufacturing, inventory and packaging schedules to fit. * Marketing information: This encompass collection, distribution and analysing marketing research information such as the past sales data about the players within the organizations marketing environment. * Promotional activities- This involves setting of promotional objectives and activating the various elements of the marketing communications mix and measuring their effectiveness, this will encompass identify and communicate with prospects. * Pricing: Deciding on the sales terms and conditions at each stage of the value chain * Risk management This includes analysis and resource sourcing required for involvement in the channel , the degree of control and influence and the potential benefits such as revenue and profit generation. * Physical Distribution Management It includes the transportation all aspects of warehousing management and information flows. Other Activities that may be part of the distribution channels are as follows: * Order Generation. * Handling of Goods. * Shipping of Goods. * Storage of Goods. * Display of Goods. * Promotion of Goods. * Sale. * Feedback. 2.5 Distribution Channel Management Distribution Channel Management is all about getting the product or service to the right people at the right time under the constraints of profits, efficiency and effectiveness. Successful marketing does not end when a business has developed a product or service and has found its appropriate target audience with a view to selling it at the right price. The next issue that needs to be faced is how they are going to distribute and sell this product/service to these people- the consumers. When a product/service is purchased by a consumer, it may have been bought directly from the business, or it may have been through a number of intermediaries (wholesaler, retailer, etc.): these are known as distribution channels. Small businesses need to acknowledge the different types of distribution channels to utilize sales potential. Distribution channel management involves a lot of channel decisions, strategic alternatives and numerous linking concepts, all of which would be explored in my research paper. Distribution channel management involves a lot of channel decisions, strategic alternatives and numerous linking concepts. The PC industry is driven by rapid technological improvements in components, particularly microprocessors, other semiconductors, and storage devices. The improved performance of hardware has been matched historically by increased complexity of software, creating demand for the latest hardware. Figure 2 PC Supply Chain This means that time is a critical competitive factor in the industry in two ways: * Firstly, excess inventory loses value (at an estimated 10% per month Ã°Å¸Ëâ° and costs money; * Secondly, products incorporating the most advanced technologies are in high demand and carry a price premium. As a result, companies that minimize inventory and bring new products to market faster can reduce costs, increase market share, and maintain higher margins. Two factors come into play in determining the ability of PC companies to manage inventory and introduce new products. First is the standardized, modular nature of the PC. PCs are built from standard components, using common architectural interfaces determined largely by Intel, Microsoft, and, earlier, IBM. PC makers also can outsource much of their production and purchase components from a well-established production network of contract manufacturers and components suppliers. This makes it quite easy for PC companies to introduce new PCs with the most advanced technologies. By the 1990s, PC makers could no longer gain much of an edge by virtue of design and manufacturing, as everyone had access to the same technical information and supply base. The difference among PC companies was determined increasingly by the second factorÃ¢â ¬âthe structure of distribution. The traditional distribution system of the PC industry is an indirect model often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"the channelÃ¢â¬ . The PC maker sells its products to distributors, who buy products from many manufacturers and then sell them to a variety of retailers, resellers, system integrators, and others, who sell products and services to the final customer. This distribution system was an effective means for distributing high volumes of PCs with a variety of configurations to reach a broad customer base. However, it had inherent weaknesses that left it vulnerable in a time-based competitive environment. First was its reliance on market forecasting to drive production. Even the most successful PC makers, such as IBM, Apple, and Compaq, were chronically bedevilled by their inability to accurately forecast demand in a market driven by ever shorter product cycles. They were either caught with short supplies of hot products, causing them to lose sales to competitors, or stuck with excess inventories of slow sellers, which clogged the distribution channels and often had to be sold at a loss to move them out. Even with the best forecasting, the indirect model was plagued by the need to hold inventory at each step. In the early 1990s, it was common for PC makers to have up to 90 days of inventory on hand and in the channel. The high inventory costs and lack of responsiveness of the indirect channel meant that there was an opportunity for someone who could a way to circumvent the channel. The company that seized this opportunity was Dell, which pioneered a new business model based on selling PCs directly to the final customer, and building the PC only when an order was received Selling directly removes two links in the supply chain where inventory could build up and also enables Dell to know its final customers, provide better service to them, and promote repeat or expanded sales to them. Build-to-order production allows Dell to introduce new technologies as soon as customers want them and makes it possible to adjust production to demand very quickly. It also means that Dell does not purchase components and assemble PCs until it has received payment from the customer, giving the company a negative cash conversion cycle in which it receives payment from customers before it must pay suppliers. The current environment for the computer hardware industry is shaped by several macro forces. Primarily, Dell and its competitors are influenced by economic, demographic, technological and national forces. Government, social, physical and national forces peripherally affect the computer hardware industry to varying degrees. The commoditization of the personal computerÃ¢â¬âa vital tool for business and consumer. Customers- are a key driver for the economics of this industry. Corporate spending accounts for 80% of all technology spending, and economic conditions decreasing business capital expenditures has a negative and direct impact on the computer hardware industry. While this industry is mature in the U.S., leading to decreased growth expectations, computer spending by other countries around the world will likely fill this void. Pricing in the computer manufacturing industry is extremely competitive. IT reflects the rapid pace of technological change and decreasing PC costs. Since 2000, the prices of chips and disk drives declined and the standardization of primary components of PCs led to a decline in PC prices. Direct sellers, including Dell, have traditionally been able to under-price indirect sellers in the industry including Compaq and HP. However, most PC vendors now offer a desktop model for less than $500 and a laptop for $700. Key success factors for companies in this industry continue to evolve as the industry matures. Specifically, they include: * Competitive prices * Superior relationships with suppliers * Product customization for business and consumer customers * Quality customer service * Excellent cost structure 2.5.1 Channel Issues Some of the channels issues that the companies face are as follows Product related issues Promotions related issue Pricing related issues Target market related issue Product related issues: The nature and type of the product decides the distribution option that should be chosen for the product. A few products require special handling. Ex. Flowers, Fragile goods etc. Promotion related issues: The type of promotions that are required to sell the products to the customers also decides the distribution options; there are products which require an extensive contact of the sales person with the customer like automobiles etc. and there are products which require no sales assistance from the sales person like milk etc. Pricing issues: The price at which the marketer desires to sell their product also decides the distribution option for the channel if a product is prices really less it cannot have many members in the distribution channel as each one of them looks at making their own profit in the channel. Target market issues: The distribution channel is successful only if the product can reach the right customer. Choosing a distribution channel is the path to reach the target customer. A key decision in setting of a channel arrangement is for the marketer to choose the approach to reach his target customer in the best possible manner. 2.6 Dell 2.6.1 Company Background Dell Inc. is a multibillion dollar, multinational technology firm that manufactures, develops, sells and supports personal computing and computer related products. Based out of Texas, it employ
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Public perceptions of policing This paper will critically examine the effect media representations of the police can have on public perceptions of policing. In doing so it will argue that the media has a considerable influence on public perceptions of policing, highlighting that positive representations of the police are a necessity in reducing crime and creating social cohesion as a whole. This paper will conclude that negative representations should be reduced, through the media and through police accountability. In order to critically examine the effect of media representations on public perceptions, the role of the police must be discussed. Traditionally, the police role was based on the role of the night watchmen. In the late 17th Century, from every evening until sunrise, night watchmen would patrol the streets with a task to examine all suspicious characters (Emsley et al. 2012). Their main responsibility was to arrest offenders of minor crime and to deter offenders of more serious crimes (Emsley et al. 2012). To clarify, part of their role was to detect and prevent crime which generally adds to the maintaining of public order in society. This is considered to be a traditional role of the police, but, in present times this role has become much more complex. The role of the police can now be considered as split into two; to punish or to support. To explain, civil policing has a minimal distance between the police and the community, with concerns to conflict resolution and peace keeping. H owever, as a coercive and repressive force, military policing distances the service and the community by concentrating on punishment rather than community involvement. For instance, military policing has been used as an attempt to tackle the war on terror, despite the debates surrounding its considered effectiveness (Murray, 2005:347). Despite this, in recent years greater emphasis has been placed on designing policing services around public need (Myhill, 2011:273). Not only can the overall role be considered torn into antithesis, the duties within the role are numerous. McLaughlin (2007) describes police work as multifaceted in that the duties of the police include officers on the beat, stopping crimes in progress, investigating serious crimes and the arresting of offenders. In addition, the police have to focus on the deterrence of criminals as well as the reassurance of the public. On this view, police activity is in fact difficult to define and, for the most part, unrelated to law enforcement and criminal detection (Mclaughlin, 2007:52). With a police role that is in itself hard to define, it is important to discuss what the public perception of the role of the police is. The public can be considered to perceive the police as symbols of moral authority (Jackson et al. 2009:104). Therefore, the role of the police is to resolve immoral acts, and set the standard of morality. To illustrate, if the police are found to be corrupt then they are arguably damaging the moral symbol, which reduces the confidence the public have in the symbol. Perhaps due to this focus on morality, the public demand that offenders (the wrong-doers) are caught and crime is prevented (Manning cited in McLaughlin, 2007:53). Public views on policing are considered as important as administrative assessments (Myhill, 2011:273-274), this can help to ensure that their duties are executed in a satisfactory manner. Overall, public perceptions of policing are influential in their own right. In regards to this, it is important to address the perceptions of the efficiency of the police and the confidence the public have in the police. Bradford (2009) discusses four distinct groups in regards to confidence and perceptions of police effectiveness; these groups being identified through research undertaken in London. Firstly, there are the supporters who are confident about policing and the improvements in policing but have little direct experience of the police, for example, they are unlikely to have been a victim. Secondly, the contents are satisfied with policing but have indifferent feelings towards policing, similarly, they have little contact with the police. Thirdly, the needy have negative views towards the improvement of policing and do not appear to be satisfied with policing; they have high levels of police contact and victimisation. Lastly, there are the demanding who have high levels of police contact but less of this contact is caused by victimisation. They are not completely satisfied with policing but are more likely to feel informed about neighbourhood policing (Bradford, 2009:144). From this, it seems that public perceptions of the police vary due to personal experience, but the amount of contact one has with the police doesnt entirely determine whether one has a positive or negative view of policing. For example, the contents and the supporters have similar contact with the police but have differing perceptions and confidence in policing. Arguably this could be due to vicarious experience (Bradford, 2009:42), for example, stories about the police which one hears from others or through the media. This type of experience could influence ones views on policing. Concerning the split role of the police, it has been established that a more service-oriented style of policing can improve public confidence, for example neighbour policing (Myhill,2011:276). Public confidence in policing is important as it aids police-public relations, and can help to deal with the reassurance gap (Bradford, 2011:179). To clarify, crime is falling but it appears to have had little impact on public confidence in policing (Jackson et al. 2009:101). Due to this, the police are having to deal with the fear of crime in addition to attempting to control crime. The police service is trying to reduce the fear by dealing with broader concerns, for example, social disorder, as well as increasing police visibility and police-public relations (Jackson et al. 2009:101). In recent years, the media can be considered to play on this fear of crime. Ditton et al. explains that although the dominant current attitude towards the relationship between the media and crime is of the formers causing fear of the latter, it wasnt always soÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦most research attention in the field was oriented to connecting the media to viewers aggression (i.e. as potential offenders) rather than to their anxieties (i.e. as potential victims) (Ditton et al. 2011:443). On this view, if the media was to concentrate on the aggression instead of the victimisation, the fear of crime would be reduced. If this fear was reduced it would increase public confidence in policing as they would believe that crime has fallen, as opposed to the public lacking confidence in the falling rate of crime. In addition, if policing does not have to tackle the fear of crime, it leaves more time to tackle actual crime, which in turn may make police-public relations stronger. Moreover, trends in public perceptions of national and local crime rates in England and Wales of 2003/2004, found that the more people thought crime was increasing, the more they lacked confidence in the police (Myhill, 2011:275). Overall, one can argue that the media influences the public into fearing increasing crime, this lowers their confidence in the police and so infringes on the strength of police-public relations. As media representations are available for general consumption, they are one of the few means whereby the public can make sense of crime and justice (Schlesinger et al. 2010 :255). In fact, the media can be considered as something that is no longer something separable from society (McRobbieThornton, 2010:488). Furthermore, the media can emphasise what they desire to cover, and neglect others (Schlesinger et al. 2010 :260). For example, a problem with policing which can be easily sensationalised in order to sell more newspapers may be reported on, whereas a successful policing crime-prevention technique lacking dramatic value may not be. Predominantly, one may view the representations of policing in the media as negative. To illustrate, the death of Ian Tomlison was heavily reported in the media. Between Tomlisons death and the Crown Prosecution Services decision not to prosecute, there was a shift in news media attention-from police violence to the wider problem of systemic institutional failure' (Greer,2011:275). To explain, the media acknowledged the misconduct of a particular police officer, but in time forwarded alleged problems of policing itself. As the public use the media to access knowledge of crime and justice, it can be considered that the public would have followed this story from the start, and so would have gained negative perceptions of policing by the end of this string of media representations. As well as producing hyperbole in the news, the media can be guilty of misrepresentations . To illustrate, McLaughlin (2007) argues that the boundaries of the real have become heavily blurred and, to some extent, erased, in that the many fictional police based programmes give a incorrect impression of policing, and produce false perceptions of policing. The media has put the once sacred icon of national security and social order at risk (McLaughlin, 2007:114) On the other hand, the media can produce positive representations of the police, which in effect may increase positivity among the public perception of policing. For instance, Neighbourhood Blues (BBC1, 2012) represents the police in a positive light, demonstrating how they integrate with the public, for example, liaising with the homeless, giving advice, showing care and compassion as well as enforcing the law. Therefore it seems that the televised representations of policing can have its strengths and weaknesses in regards to public perceptions of policing. To clarify, on-screen media can take away the reality of policing and create false representations, however it can also be a means to demonstrate the real work that the police actually undergo. In regards to media as news reports, it appears that the more sellable the story the more likely it will be printed, and so the more scandalous stories, such as police misconduct, will be presented on a larger scale than other less sensational stories. As previously acknowledged, the effects of media representations on public perceptions of policing also affects the trust the public have in the police. Greer Castells explain, When public officials and institutions are repeatedly and sensationally named and shamed as incompetent or corrupt, and failing to adhere to the norms and values they are supposed to uphold and encourage in others, public trust is undermined (Greer McLaughlin,2012:289) An example of such, is the media reaction to the MacPherson Report, in relation to the murder of Stephen Lawrence in 1993. Allegedly, collusion and corruption on the polices behalf occurred during the Stephen Lawrence enquiry which affected the time-scale of the case achieving justice. There were also claims of unprofessional treatment of the Lawrence family during the enquiry (MacPherson, 1999). The media was immediately receptive to the enquiry (Neal, 2003:65), taking a hold of the misconduct within the police, and transforming representations to focus on institutional racism and the need for policy intervention, with four major newspapers reporting about this on their front pages (Neal, 2003:65). These newspapers heavily criticised the police in a way which was considerably unmanageable for the police (Neal, 2003:63). It is thought that higher levels of trust are linked to positive outcomes in terms of co-operation, deference and even compliance with the law ( Tyler cited in Bradf ord 2011:179 ). In this sense, one could argue that this excess of negative representations from the media hindered this trust by encouraging public perceptions that were damaging to policing. However, on the opposite view the media can be considered to have had positive effects on public perceptions, arguably it was the sole reason for the Lawrence case eventually coming to justice. If it was not for the media initially reporting on the case, the MacPherson report might never had emerged, and the issue of institutional racism may never had been acknowledged. Taking this into account, the media helped to increase the professionalism of the police. This may not have provided a positive perception of policing , but ultimately by tackling corruption, policing will improve, and in turn this could limit the negative publicity of the police. Arguably, if the police had held themselves accountable for the misconduct in dealing with the Lawrence case, then the media would not have had to expose the corruption in the police on behalf of the community. Thereby, the police need to safeguard their trust from the public and maintain a positive representation of policing by being accoun table and professional. As well as maximising audiences as much as possible, on behalf of the public the media also challenges state institutions (Mawby, 2002, 30), therefore it is in the police services interest to have positive media relations and be more proactive in order to control the police image. There exist certain strategies as a result of this interest, the main objective being the generating of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦positive publicity, thereby influencing public opinion in favour of force objectives (Mawby,2002:317). By promoting a positive light on police work, making use of all opportunities to obtain positive publicity, ensuring a professional image, and using the media to promote policing in a positive way, the public can gain a better understanding of policing and policing objectives(Mawby,2002:317). To clarify, if the police were to be continually accountable for their acts and professional in undertaking tasks and dealing with the public, they would begin to tackle the negative image of policing that the media represents so often. This is due to the fact that the media would have less need to expose the police on behalf of the community, as the police would have deem themselves responsible prior to any media report. Moreover, the police can only do a limited amount in the realms of policing in producing a positive image to the public as it is the media that has the influence on the police-public perception. Ultimately, policing must focus on improving media relations and taking a pro-active role in promoting themselves in a positive light. This would reduce the negativity that the media can present to the public, ultimately improving the publics perception of policing. In summary, this paper has argued that media representations of the police do influence the publics perception of policing. With the police role being a debatable, complex concept, public perceptions of policing are important. As was illustrated through Bradfords distinct groups, ones perception of policing is not solely dependent on personal experience. Due to the medias need to sensationalise and their duty to speak for community, the media generally represents a negative view of the police. Furthermore, the media can be considered to play on the fear of crime which has had a massive effect on public perceptions of crime, and is counter productive in the tackling of crime and in improving the trust the public have in the police. However, the media can present policing in a positive light in informative programmes for example. This paper has argued in favour of the importance of a positive police-public relation, as this positive relationship can not only help to reduce the fear of crime but can tackle crime itself. With emphasis on the importance and the benefits of a positive relationship, it is paramount that the media limits its negative representations of policing in order to improve the public perception of the police and so the police-public relationship. However, this paper has acknowledged that the media is not always incorrect when negative perceptions of policing are represented, in fact the media can be a necessary tool in holding the police to account in certain cases. Ultimately, this can add to the professionalism of the police service, and so can improve community satisfaction. Even so, the police need to control their own image and take charge in presenting themselves positively, regardless of the media. Overall, the representation of the police in the media needs to be positive, this could be achieved through the police service itself improving its professionalism by showing accountability, alongside the necessity of the media changing throug h acknowledgment of the disadvantages they can bring by negatively representing the police. To conclude, this paper has critically examined the effect that media representations of the police can have on public perceptions of policing, and has argued that these representations do have a considerably negative effect on public perceptions, of which needs to change.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Physiology and Psychology of Bulimia Bulimia is a disorder centered around an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with food and weight. This obsession involves eating large quantities of food, feeling guilty about the food consumption, and taking drastic measures to prevent caloric/fat absorption. Measures vary with each individual and include one or all of the following: forced vomiting, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, or excessive exercise. This disease affects one to three percent of adolescent and young women in the United States, and bulimic behaviors are displayed by ten to twenty percent of adolescent and young women in the United States (http://dcs.engr.widener.edu/galla/gal la.htm). In the studies of bulimia nervosa there is a continuing debate concerning the underlying cause of the disease - whether it is physiological or psychological. Studies have found convincing results for both theories. Numerous links have been found between eating regulation and neurotransmitters. However, there is no clear evidence that neurotransmitter dysfunction is the underlying cause of bulimia nervosa. Of the neurotransmitters that have been tested, serotonin has had one of the largest roles in the regulation of food intake among patients with bulimia. Progress has also come through treating bulimia as a psychological disorder. Treatment under this theory often involves psychotherapy and the use of antidepressants. However, it is widely accepted that the path to the best results involves the combination of both physiological and psychological methods of treatment. First, the physiological aspect will be explored. Assuming that eating regulation is controlled primarily by the brain, disturbances could exist in several places: (1) the br... ... Kaye, Walter H. and Harry E. Gwirtsman, eds. (1985). The Treatment of Normal Weight Bulimia, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Pope, H.G., Jr. and Hudson, J.I. (1982). "Treating Bulimia with Antidepressants." Psychopharmacology, 78, 176-179. Stunkard, Albert J. and Eliot Stellar, eds. (1984). Eating and Its Disorders: Research Publications, 62, 84; 259-260. Walsh, Timothy B. (1988). Eating Behavior in Eating Disorders, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Winik, Myron, ed. (1988). Control of Appetite: Current Concepts in Nutrition, 16, 27-34; 82-83. Wurtman, J.J. and R.J. Wurtman, et al. (1981). "Carbohydrate Craving in Obese People: Suppression of Serotoninergic Transmission." International Journal of Eating Disorders, 1, 2-14. Wurtman, J.J. and R.J. Wurtman, eds. (1979). Disorders of Eating: Nutrition and the Brain, 3, 121. The Physiology and Psychology of Bulimia Essay -- Eating Disorder Weig The Physiology and Psychology of Bulimia Bulimia is a disorder centered around an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with food and weight. This obsession involves eating large quantities of food, feeling guilty about the food consumption, and taking drastic measures to prevent caloric/fat absorption. Measures vary with each individual and include one or all of the following: forced vomiting, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, or excessive exercise. This disease affects one to three percent of adolescent and young women in the United States, and bulimic behaviors are displayed by ten to twenty percent of adolescent and young women in the United States (http://dcs.engr.widener.edu/galla/gal la.htm). In the studies of bulimia nervosa there is a continuing debate concerning the underlying cause of the disease - whether it is physiological or psychological. Studies have found convincing results for both theories. Numerous links have been found between eating regulation and neurotransmitters. However, there is no clear evidence that neurotransmitter dysfunction is the underlying cause of bulimia nervosa. Of the neurotransmitters that have been tested, serotonin has had one of the largest roles in the regulation of food intake among patients with bulimia. Progress has also come through treating bulimia as a psychological disorder. Treatment under this theory often involves psychotherapy and the use of antidepressants. However, it is widely accepted that the path to the best results involves the combination of both physiological and psychological methods of treatment. First, the physiological aspect will be explored. Assuming that eating regulation is controlled primarily by the brain, disturbances could exist in several places: (1) the br... ... Kaye, Walter H. and Harry E. Gwirtsman, eds. (1985). The Treatment of Normal Weight Bulimia, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Pope, H.G., Jr. and Hudson, J.I. (1982). "Treating Bulimia with Antidepressants." Psychopharmacology, 78, 176-179. Stunkard, Albert J. and Eliot Stellar, eds. (1984). Eating and Its Disorders: Research Publications, 62, 84; 259-260. Walsh, Timothy B. (1988). Eating Behavior in Eating Disorders, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Winik, Myron, ed. (1988). Control of Appetite: Current Concepts in Nutrition, 16, 27-34; 82-83. Wurtman, J.J. and R.J. Wurtman, et al. (1981). "Carbohydrate Craving in Obese People: Suppression of Serotoninergic Transmission." International Journal of Eating Disorders, 1, 2-14. Wurtman, J.J. and R.J. Wurtman, eds. (1979). Disorders of Eating: Nutrition and the Brain, 3, 121.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Groves, K. S. 2007. Integrating leadership development and succession planning best practices. Journal of Management Development, 26(3): 239-260. Summary: This article begins by informing the reader of various leadership development challenges that organizations of all sizes and industries encounter. Due to a lack of understanding the importance of best practice leadership, organizations can critically damage their future success. The author points out those depriving high-potential candidates of critical work experience will ultimately create shortfalls for employees to attain senior-level positions once the current CEOs are retired. On top of that, remaining deficient in the resources necessary for employee development, and the inability to adapt to a rapidly aging workforce, also creates underperformance for employees. These processes include mentoring, networking and action learning. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to better understand how organizations can implement these processes effectively in the healthcare industry. Outline: I. The author begins by presenting Ã¢â¬Å"workforce statistics that pose a severe challenge as the baby boomer generation retires and far fewer college-educated workers are prepared to replace themÃ¢â¬ (240). a. A lack of personal networks and mentoring programs decreases morale; therefore, employees do not completely understand what it takes to be successful in their roles. b. Ã¢â¬Å"Companies are successful to the extent that they have leaders at all levels of the organization.Ã¢â¬ (241) c. Career advancement challenges for women and people of color are also present in corporate environments that discourage networking opportunities and/or promote stereotyping. i. Therefore, in this sect... ...rm benefits are exceptionally plentiful. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Secondly, I learned that it is also beneficial for employees to have multiple mentors within the organization. Since the beginning of my employment, I only call one of my co-workers my mentor, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s simply because I feel a greater confidence when relying on him for support and guidance in the workplace. After reading this article, I am more prone to seek other individuals that have the potential to provide their distinctive opinions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lastly, I learned that there is a greater outcome from employees who participate in workshops facilitated from their senior executives. I undergo a lot of training at HMA and some of the seminars are proctored by senior management. After reading this article, and looking back on the few seminars taught by upper management, I can agree that I was more focused and motivated to learn.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
PART ONE As a local television Director, my main focus is on the local news and the issues that affect the community in which I live. I would choose to make the closing of the parks for three days my lead story and leave the celebrity death to the bigger networks. My first priority is to report news that affects the citizens of the community that I serve, even with the prospect of bigger ratings; I would feel an obligation to my audience to report issues that are more closely related to them.I would have an intense investigation on the money issues that has caused the city council to start looking at ways to save money. I would send a reporter to talk to each council person to obtain any information into the current expenditures that the city has invoked. There would be a run of the initial story set up on our local news website, which would include a blog box to obtain audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback and comments. Prior to the city council meeting, I would have run a couple of the storie s that the investigating reporters had found and announced the time and place of the city councilÃ¢â¬â¢s meeting.This way those that are interested in attending will be well informed and those that did not know will know have the ability to participate. One reporter and crew would be assigned to give onsite coverage of the meeting, which could report breaking news on the vote and how it might affect the community. One reporter will man the website giving updated information on the voting and answering any questions that may arise from bloggers. Once the vote has been tallied, we connect with the on-scene reporter with the results.Now, the reporter on-scene will also be responsible for the follow-up story. Getting information from the city council persons on why they voted the way they did, what comments do the elected officials have in response to how they voted and why, and are there alternative ways to save money other than closing the parks? Some key questions that need to be a sked are: how will this affect the community, are there more budgets cuts coming to save money, and what are the long term effects that the community might need to be aware of?These questions play an important role for the audience and how their lives will be affected for the months to come. Giving residentÃ¢â¬â¢s the ability to post their comments, good or bad, on the website is also extremely important, the feedback can be used to gauge the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to what was reported and it can serve as a forum for peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s voices being heard by the city council. The follow Ã¢â¬âup is just as important as how it all began, following other stories that are related to the parkÃ¢â¬â¢s closing and money saving ideas by the city council need to be investigated.Any important shut downs or closures must have priority over no community based issues. We must focus on the goal of serving our community and understand that, yes, there are ratings to be made airing the popul ar stories, but if one issue slips by our attention the community will turn on our station. PART TWO For years our society has transformed from one era to another. These changes were made because of our cultures demand of better products; it also was changed with the creation of advance technology.Inventions such as the radio, television, electricity, transportation, and computers have shaped our culture into what it is today. When culture changes, so do the things our cultures like such as movies, television programs, and games. These changes are seen as an evolution for the better. Our culture has played a major role in movies and television shows along the years. War of the Worlds, which was originally broadcasted on radio in 1938; showed a time when the reports of UFOÃ¢â¬â¢s and aliens were on everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind.Orson Welles created it as an entertainment broadcast, which caused a panic across the country. Later, it was made into a movie and depicted the events that happen ed when people thought that the broadcast was true. Movies such as Men in Black, Signs, Predator and Aliens have played on the Orson Welles saga and shows our cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in life on other planets, which still persists today. Era movies such as Platoon, Apocalypse Now, Thin Red Line, and We Were Soldiers Once show our cultural involvement in many wars and conflicts.Television shows followed the same type of evolution. HoganÃ¢â¬â¢s Heroes, X-Files, Brady Bunch, The WaltonÃ¢â¬â¢s, and the multiple reality shows that air today all reflect the things that people have going on in their lives and how they can relate to the programs they watch. You take shows from 20 years ago and compare them to the shows today; you will find a vast difference in language, violence, sexually explicit content and gore. This is due to the change in our culture which has directed the television shows and movies to evolve to where they are today.Gaming has really evolved of the last ten years , originally created as entertainment for children, it has actually captivated all ages. Starting with simple graphics and controls, as our culture evolved, so too did the demand for better graphics, controls and more games. The first games systems I can remember was Atari and know we have Xbox, PS3 and Wii to name the top few. Going from table tennis to interactive games which can be controlled by a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body shows how our cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s advancements have played a role in the gaming industry.Due to the War in Iraq, games such as Modern Warfare and Call of Duty have emerged to be some of the top games released as of late. Along with the encouragement of a healthy society Wii Fit and the Xbox Kinect have hit the spot in giving all ages the ability to play and exercise at the same time. The Wii gaming system is even being used in medical treatment to help people learn to walk again. Many people would say that games have become more violent and gruesome, thus having a nega tive effect on the youth of today. They blame gaming systems for encouraging laziness and obesity.On the other side, studies have shown that gaming systems have enhanced childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s hand-eye coordination, critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. Our culture creates a demand on better quality and new technology. Movies, television and the gaming industry will be ever changing in the hopes of creating something that our culture wants. Since the people behind producing and creating these media platforms are from our culture, it is safe to say that our culture and these media platforms will forever be linked and intertwined for years to come.